A new free-living population of the Bialowieza bison (Bison bonasus bonasus L., 1758) was created in 2015 in northern part of Belarus on the territory of the Verkhnedvinsky and Rossonsky districts of the Vitebsk region. We carried out its regular monitoring for four years (from the moment of its occurrence to the beginning 2019). Visual bison observations, search for traces of their vital activity, questionnaires of rangers and local peoples were used for data collection. It was accumulated the information on the population dynamics, on fertility, mortality age and sex composition of bison, on seasonal characteristics of the spatial and territorial herds and small groups structure. There was a rapid increase in the number of animals at the initial stage of the Krasnoborsky population existence. This can be explained by the large number of introduced bison founders (68 individuals), the high birth rate level of young animals, low mortality level and the predominance of young and middle-aged animals (about 87 % of the total population number). The Krasnoborsky population consists of two territorial groups. Each of them has several herds, which are extremely unstable in their quantitative, seasonal and gender composition. The area on which the population lives exceeds 17 thousand hectares. Bison use this territory unevenly. Key habitats, regular migration routes and low-visited areas are highlighted here. Practical measures are indicated in this publication. Their implementation will contribute to the long-term conservation of the Krasnoborsky population.
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