general info about Theriologia Ukrainica

Theriologia Ukrainica
(former Proceedings of the Theriological School)

ISSN 2616-7379 (print) ISSN 2617-1120 (online)

2019 Vol. 18 Contents of volume >>>

download pdfNikolaichuk, O., I. Zagorodniuk. 2019. The northern raccoon (Procyon lotor) in urban environment of Kyiv and perspectives of formation of its wild populations in Ukraine. Theriologia Ukrainica, 18: 108112.



The northern raccoon (Procyon lotor) in urban environment of Kyiv and perspectives of formation of its wild populations in Ukraine


Olexiy Nikolaichuk, Igor Zagorodniuk


Ukrainian Theriological Society, NAS Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine),
National Museum of Natural History, NAS of Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine)


Theriologia Ukrainica. 2019. Vol. 18: 108112.




Ukrainian, with English summary, titles of tables, captures to figs


The information on the findings and status of the raccoon in the fauna of Ukraine and neighboring countries is presented with an analysis of findings in Polissia. The first case of occurrence of the raccoon in winter in a residential area of the Kyiv metropolis is described. The analysis of available sources shows the widespread practice of keeping raccoons as pets, and regular reports of raccoon escapes from captivity. Examples of records of free-living animals are given, that is, raccoons are able to survive without human concern, as well as to find food and shelter on their own. Findings in Kyiv testify the rapid synanthropization of the species, in contrast to the exanthropic settlements in the neighbouring regions of Belarus, which by now disappeared. All this is considered as evidence of the first stages of formation of a synanthropic population of the species with the prospect of further emergence of a free-living population. Comparison of the data obtained with current surveys on alien species in Europe reveals the coincidence of such findings and the fact that they are a natural continuation of the invasion of the species in Europe with the further expansion of the limits of free-living populations to the east. This is due to escapes from contact zoos and other places where the species is held in captivity, as well as the active adaptation to new living conditions due to climate warming and increased chance of survival of the species in natural conditions. The main habitat of the species under current conditions is not natural, but synanthropic locations, in particular residential areas of cities, but the prospect of exanthropization is quite real. Considering all aspects of the broad expansion of the northern raccoon into the wild in many European countries, we can conclude that currently there is a high risk of emergence of a similar situation in Ukraine. Such a scenario may have a negative impact on the local fauna unless we prepare a concept to address this issue.


Northern Raccoon, Procyon lotor, Urban Environment, Ukraine.



Bartoszewicz, M. 2011. Procyon lotor. In: Online Database of the European Network on Invasive Alien Species (NOBANIS)., 2016.
Bobrov, V. V., A. A. Varshavsky, L. A. Khlyap. 2008. Alien Species of Mammals in Ecosystems of Russia. KMK, Moskva, 1232. (In Russian)
Byshnev, I. 2006. The Chernobyl Jungle. Birds and We. 8: 48. (In Russian)
CABI, 2019. Procyon lotor (raccoon). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK, CAB International.
Delegan, I. V., I. . Delegan, . . Delegan. 2005. Biology of Forest Birds and Animals. Polly Press, Lviv, 1600. (In Ukrainian)
Gashchak, S. P., Vyshnevsky, D. O., Zalskyi, O. O. 2006. Vertebrate Fauna of the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (Ukraine). Publishing House of CTPYBRVR, Slavutych, 1100. (In Ukrainian)
Heltai, M., L. Szemethy, J. Lanszki, S. Csanyi. 2000. Returning and new mammal predators in Hungary: the status and distribution of the golden jackal (Canis aureus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) in 19972000. Beitrage zur Jagd- und Wildforschung, 26: 95102.
Kuchmel, S. V., L. D. Burko, B. P. Savitsky. 2007. Key to Mammals in Belarus. BSU, Minsk, 1168. (In Russian)
Markevych, O. P., K. I. Tatarko. 1983. Russian-Ukrainian-Latin Zoological Dictionary: Terminology and Nomenclature. Naukova Dumka Press, Kyiv, 1412. (In Ukrainian)
Pavlov, M. P., I. B. Korsakova, N. P. Lavrov. 1973. Acclimatization of Hunting Animals and Birds in USSR. Pt 1. Volga-Vyatka Book, Kirov, 1536. (In Russian)
Romaniuk, D., J. Byshnev A. Kleschuk. 2016. Chernobyl. Illustrated Album. 2nd edition, revised. Publisher Romanyuk D. M., Minsk, 1256. (In Belarussian)
Rukovsky, N. N. 1958. The modern and possible range of the raccoon-striped raccoon (Procyon lotor L.) in the USSR. Problems of Land Zoogeography. Lviv Univ. High school, Lviv, 221228. (In Russian)
Salgado, I. 2018. Is the raccoon (Procyon lotor) out of control in Europe? Biodiversity and Conservation, 27 (9): 22432256.
Savarin, A. A. 2007. On the cause of the disappearance of the raccoon raccoon (Procyon lotor L., 1758) in Byelorussian Polesie (pathophysiological aspect). Modern Problems of Nature Management, Hunting and Animal Husbandry. Kirov, 365366. (In Russian)
Savitsky, B. P., S. V. Kuchmel, L. D. Burko. 2005. The Mammals of Belarus. Ed. by B. P. Savitsky. Publ. Centre of BSU, Minsk, 1319. (In Russian)
Schmidt, K. A. 2003. Nest predation and population declines in Illinois songbirds: a case for mesopredator effects. Conservation Biology, 17 (4): 11411150.
Stubbe, M. 1993. Procyon lotor (Linne, 1758) Waschbar. In: Niethammer, J., Krapp, F. (eds). Handbuch der Saugetiere Europas. Aula Verlag, Wiesbaden, 331364.
Vyshnevsky, D. 2014. Features of Zoocenoses of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in the Post-Emergency Period. Scientific Bulletin of the Uzhgorod University. Series Biology, 15: 2023. (In Ukrainian)
Winter, M. 2009. Procyon lotor (Linnaeus), raccoon (Procyonidae, Mammalia). In: Drake, J. A. (ed.). Handbook of Alien Species in Europe. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., 368. (Springer Series in Invasion Ecology; Volume 3).
Zagorodniuk, I. 2006. Adventive mammal fauna of Ukraine and a significance of invasions in historical changes of fauna and communities. Proceedings of the Theriological School, 8: 1847. (In Ukrainian)
Zagorodniuk, I., Korobchenko, M. 2007. Distribution and dynamics of rabies in mammal populations in Luhansk province. Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Biology, 45: 127138. (In Ukrainian)
Zagorodniuk, I. V., I. G. Emelianov. 2012. Taxonomy and nomenclature of mammals of Ukraine. Proceedings of the Nat. Museum of Natural History, 10: 530. (In Ukrainian)
Zagorodniuk, I., I. Dykyy. 2012. Hunting mammal fauna of Ukraine: species list and vernacular names. Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Biology, 58: 2144. (In Ukrainian)


to main page of journal >>>

created: 14.12.2019
updated: 24.03.2020

Locations of visitors to this page