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Novitates Theriologicae

ISSN 2709-491X (print) ISSN 2709-4928 (online)

2021 Vol. 12 Contents of volume >>>



download pdfRekovets, L., L. Kuzmenko. 2021. Species as a system within a system. Novitates Theriologicae, 12: 97104.



Species as a system within a system


Leonid Rekovets (National Museum of Natural History, NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv)
Liudmyla Kuzmenko (Mykola Gogol Nizhyn State University, Nizhyn)
orcid: no


The article presents the results of an analytical review of general laws of nature development and their relationships with the laws of biological evolution in terms of general theory of systems and their synergetic manifestation at different levels of organization. The basis of such analysis is the interpretation of the species as a system, as a structure with self-organizing and complicating abilities, as well as a unit of evolutionary diversity and taxonomy. At the same time, as a system, the species occupies an appropriate position in system subordination, in the hierarchy of biological evolution, and in systems of taxonomic division and phylogeny. Its synergistic connections in the system characterize its complexity, functionality, self-organization, and alternative development, which is manifested through saltation, relative balance and constant absorption of energy to organize chaos as a source of order. These characteristics accompany the non-integrated development of biological systems as open and unbalanced by intraspecific polymorphism. Analytical delineation of the species as a system within a system involves defining it as a structure, an element, and a carrier of properties and functions at different organizational (ontogenetic, biocoenotic, and evolutionary) levels of biological systems.


Ukrainian, with English summary



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online: 15.06.2021 print: 15.06.2021


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