advent of Darwinism, historical, functional, and
adaptive approaches began to dominate in the theory
of form. According to A. A. Lyubishchev: «Historical
morphology devoured constructive». The tasks of
morphology and taxonomy are closely related. Both
disciplines should strive to identify the laws governing
the diversity of the organic world. The nomogenetic
component of evolution, the laws underlying the
system, are reflected in morphology. And vice versa,
the similarity of organs of different origins, facts
of incomplete homology, pre-adaptation of forms,
a huge number of parallelisms and many other morphological
factors prove not only the existence of laws of
form, but also the nomogenetic component of evolution.
Despite the heterogeneity and exceptional complexity
in the structure of organisms, there is a recurrence
of similar forms that penetrates the entire systematics,
suggesting that the forms of organisms are not epiphenomenons
of a complex structure. An excellent example of
regular variability is the Law of homologous series
of hereditary variability by N. I. Vavilov: «knowing
what mutational changes occur in individuals of
any species, one can foresee that the same mutations
in similar conditions will arise in related species
and genera.» For A. A. Lyubishchev, the main components
of evolution were: 1) tychogenetic (evolution based
on random, unforeseen mutations); 2) nomogenetic
(the presence of firm laws of development and limited
form formation); 3) ectogenetic (factors external
to organisms); and 4) telogenetic (active adaptation
of organisms). At present, the study of architectonics
and promorphology is coming to the fore, i.e. symmetry
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